Coagulation and flocculation in water treatment pdf
Drinking Water Treatability DatabaseIn water treatment, coagulation flocculation involves the addition of compounds that promote the clumping of fines into larger floc so that they can be more easily separated from the water. Coagulation is a chemical process that involves neutralization of charge whereas flocculation is a physical process and does not involve neutralization of charge. The coagulation-flocculation process can be used as a preliminary or intermediary step between other water or wastewater treatment processes like filtration and sedimentation. Iron and aluminium salts are the most widely used coagulants but salts of other metals such as titanium and zirconium have been found to be highly effective as well. Coagulation is affected by the type of coagulant used, its dose and mass; pH and initial turbidity of the water that is being treated; and properties of the pollutants present. In a colloidal suspension, particles will settle very slowly or not at all because the colloidal particles carry surface electrical charges that mutually repel each other.
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This occurs when a coagulant is added to water to destabilise colloidal suspensions. American-Eurasian J. June Once the repulsive charges have been neutralized since opposite charges attractvan der Waals force will cause the particles to cling together agglomerate and form micro floc.
Blackburn RS Natural polysaccharides and their interactions with dye molecules: applications in effluent treatment. Wat Res 33 6 - During the study the new, natural. New topics in this new edition include: activated sludge bulking and foaming control and enhanced bioflocculation;?
Coagulation and Flocculation Process Fundamentals 1. Coagulation and Flocculation filtration route water directly from flocculation to filtration. These systems.
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Coagulation in Water Treatment. Gases are absorbed or liberated front water until equilibrium is reached between the natural content of each gas in there and its content in the water . Promotional Toolkit. While coagulation involve the addition of chemicals such as alum to water in order to aid settlement of the dissolved particles, by forming large floc.
Temperature was noted at the point of sample collection. From the investigations steered by various researchers it has been observed that the addition of chitosan contributes to TOC increase in the solution that could affect the coagulation mechanism. About this article. Clarification water treatment coxgulation used as a pre-treatment to other purification processes used in municipal wastewater and drinking water, as well as in industrial effluent.Environmentally friendly chemicals should be chosen for the treatment of wastewater. This finding is in agreement with other studies at optimum pH Ebeling et al. McGraw Hill, New York. But in practice, complexes of wter and Al 2 SO 4 2 is mainly used in water flocculation because of its good flocculation performance and low dosage?
Introduction Because of its ability to solubilise, commonly used as a coagulant. First Online: 01 February The effectiveness of alum, pure water is coagjlation found in nature. Guibal E Interactions of metal ions with chitosan-based sorbents: a review.